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Stressing that Telangana government was against uranium mining in Amrabad Tiger Reserve ATR , chief minister K Chandrasekhar Rao on Sunday said a resolution would be passed in the assembly and council expressing the opinions of both houses. This was put on record by the ministry even though it still asked the state government to accord permission for the AMD to undertake the work. The state legislative assembly on Monday unanimously passed a resolution, including an amendment, urging the government of India not to permit or allow mining of uranium in Nallamala forest area and other parts of Telangana. Trump administration officials in a report on Thursday recommended granting regulators the ability to deny certain imports of nuclear fuel from Russia and China and take other measures to help the struggling US nuclear industry. The fight against uranium mining in Nallamala forest area gained steam on Monday with the two affected mandals - Amrabad and Padara - completely shutting down following a bandh call given by a joint action committee of the Congress and Left parties.

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Gunther of the University of Oxford in The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin inKlaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound likely sodium diuranate by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.

Uranium is a chemical element with the symbol U and atomic number It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table.A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence thefoodlumscatering.comm is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable; the half-lives of its naturally occurring isotopes range between , years and Appearance: silvery gray metallic; corrodes to . Of all the isotopic dating methods in use today, the uranium-lead method is the oldest and, when done carefully, the most reliable. Unlike any other method, uranium-lead has a natural cross-check built into it that shows when nature has tampered with the evidence. Basics of Uranium-Lead. Uranium comes in two common isotopes with atomic weights Author: Andrew Alden.

Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in During World War I when the Central Powers suffered a shortage of molybdenum to make artillery gun barrels and high speed tool steels they routinely substituted ferrouranium alloys which present many of the same physical characteristics.

When this practice became known in the USA government requested several prominent universities to research these uses for uranium and tools made with these formulas remained in use for several decades only ending when the Manhattan Project and the Cold War placed a large demand on uranium for fission research and weapon development.

A team led by Enrico Fermi in observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays electrons or positrons from the elements produced; see beta particle. Lise Meitner and her nephew, the physicist Otto Robert Frischpublished the physical explanation in February and named the process " nuclear fission ". Confirmation of this hypothesis came inand later work found that on average about 2. Nier to separate uranium isotopes for determination of the fissile component, and on February 29,Nier used an instrument he built at the University of Minnesota to separate the world's first uranium sample in the Tate Laboratory.

After mailed to Columbia University 's cyclotronJohn Dunning confirmed the sample to be the isolated fissile material on March 1. These discoveries led numerous countries to begin working on the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power. On 2 Decemberas part of the Manhattan Projectanother team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial self-sustained nuclear chain reactionChicago Pile An initial plan using enriched uranium was abandoned as it was as yet unavailable in sufficient quantities.

Two major types of atomic bombs were developed by the United States during World War II : a uranium-based device codenamed " Little Boy " whose fissile material was highly enriched uraniumand a plutonium-based device see Trinity test and " Fat Man " whose plutonium was derived from uranium The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in Englan which began generation on 17 October[47] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvaniawhich began on 26 May Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarinethe USS Nautilusin Inthe French physicist Francis Perrin discovered fifteen ancient and no longer active natural nuclear fission reactors in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo mine in GabonWest Africacollectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors.

The ore deposit is 1. The capacity of the surrounding sediment to contain the nuclear waste products has been cited by the U. Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the s and early s and by France into the s and s [19] spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world.

Uranium miners have a higher incidence of cancer. An excess risk of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners, for example, has been documented and linked to their occupation. During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium.

Scientific American reported in February that in some of the facilities security consisted of chain link fences which were in severe states of disrepair. According to an interview from the article, one facility had been storing samples of enriched weapons grade uranium in a broom closet before the improvement project; another had been keeping track of its stock of nuclear warheads using index cards kept in a shoe box.

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Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of ironuranium is only naturally formed by the r-process rapid neutron capture in supernovae and neutron star mergers. Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is the 51st element in order of abundance in the Earth's crust.

Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on Earth and is almost always found combined with other elements. Uranium's average concentration in the Earth's crust is depending on the reference 2 to 4 parts per million, [8] [19] or about 40 times as abundant as silver. Uranium is more plentiful than antimonytincadmiummercuryor silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenic or molybdenum. Some bacteria, such as Shewanella putrefaciensGeobacter metallireducens and some strains of Burkholderia fungorumuse uranium for their growth and convert U VI to U IV.

Other organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobactercan absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to times the level of their environment.

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After one day, one gram of bacteria can encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water. In nature, uranium VI forms highly soluble carbonate complexes at alkaline pH.

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This leads to an increase in mobility and availability of uranium to groundwater and soil from nuclear wastes which leads to health hazards. However, it is difficult to precipitate uranium as phosphate in the presence of excess carbonate at alkaline pH.

A Sphingomonas sp. The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. Plants absorb some uranium from soil. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million. Other important uranium mining countries are Canada 9, tAustralia 6, tNiger 4, tNamibia 4, t and Russia 3, t.

Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pitundergroun in-situ leachingand borehole mining see uranium mining. Extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore. The leachate is subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange.

Yellowcake is then calcined to remove impurities from the milling process before refining and conversion. Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals. World uranium production mines and demand [72]. Yellowcake is a concentrated mixture of uranium oxides that is further refined to extract pure uranium. It is estimated that 5. Some nuclear fuel comes from nuclear weapons being dismantled, [81] such as from the Megatons to Megawatts Program.

An additional 4. InORNL researchers announced the successful development of a new absorbent material dubbed HiCap which performs surface retention of solid or gas molecules, atoms or ions and also effectively removes toxic metals from water, according to results verified by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Inseventeen countries produced concentrated uranium oxides: Canada The ultimate available supply is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years, [77] although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.

There is a fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade. Calcined uranium yellowcake, as produced in many large mills, contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than those with long retention times or particles recovered in the stack scrubber.

Uranium content is usually referenced to U 3 O 8which dates to the days of the Manhattan Project when U 3 O 8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard. Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium IV and uranium VIand their two corresponding oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide UO 2 and uranium trioxide UO 3.

The most common forms of uranium oxide are triuranium octoxide U 3 O 8 and UO 2. Triuranium octoxide is depending on conditions the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature.

Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel.

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Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal. Salts of many oxidation states of uranium are water- soluble and may be studied in aqueous solutions.

Unlike the uranyl salts of uranium and polyatomic ion uranium-oxide cationic forms, the uranatessalts containing a polyatomic uranium-oxide anion, are generally not water-soluble. The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium VI cause the Pourbaix diagram to change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution.

While the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in wateruranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is because a U VI cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes.

The uranium fraction diagrams in the presence of carbonate illustrate this further: when the pH of a uranium VI solution increases, the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and at high pHs it becomes an anionic hydroxide complex. When carbonate is added, uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes if the pH is increased. One effect of these reactions is increased solubility of uranium in the pH range 6 to 8, a fact that has a direct bearing on the long term stability of spent uranium dioxide nuclear fuels.

Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbidenitrideand halide compounds. Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acidsreact with water, and can ignite in air to form U 3 O 8.

Both UC and UC 2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. All uranium fluorides are created using uranium tetrafluoride UF 4 ; UF 4 itself is prepared by hydrofluorination of uranium dioxide. Under the right conditions of temperature and pressure, the reaction of solid UF 4 with gaseous uranium hexafluoride UF 6 can form the intermediate fluorides of U 2 F 9U 4 F 17and UF 5.

At room temperatures, UF 6 has a high vapor pressuremaking it useful in the gaseous diffusion process to separate the rare uranium from the common uranium isotope. This compound can be prepared from uranium dioxide and uranium hydride by the following process: [98]. The resulting UF 6a white solid, is highly reactive by fluorinationeasily sublimes emitting a vapor that behaves as a nearly ideal gasand is the most volatile compound of uranium known to exist.

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One method of preparing uranium tetrachloride UCl 4 is to directly combine chlorine with either uranium metal or uranium hydride. The reduction of UCl 4 by hydrogen produces uranium trichloride UCl 3 while the higher chlorides of uranium are prepared by reaction with additional chlorine. Bromides and iodides of uranium are formed by direct reaction of, respectively, bromine and iodine with uranium or by adding UH 3 to those element's acids. Stability of the oxyhalides decrease as the atomic weight of the component halide increases.

Natural uranium consists of three major isotopes : uranium All three are radioactiveemitting alpha particleswith the exception that all three of these isotopes have small probabilities of undergoing spontaneous fission.

There are also five other trace isotopes: uranium, which is formed when U undergoes spontaneous fission, releasing neutrons that are captured by another U atom; uranium, which is formed when U captures a neutron but emits two more, which then decays to neptunium ; and finally, uranium, which is formed in the decay chain of that neptunium It is also expected that thorium should be able to undergo double beta decaywhich would produce uranium, but this has not yet been observed experimentally.

Uranium is the most stable isotope of uranium, with a half-life of about 4. Uranium has a half-life of about 7. When the Earth was young, probably about one-fifth of its uranium was uranium, but the percentage of U was probably much lower than this.

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The decay chain of U, which is called the actinium serieshas 15 members and eventually decays into lead Uranium, which is a member of the uranium series the decay chain of uraniumdecays to lead through a series of relatively short-lived isotopes. Uranium is made from thorium by neutron bombardment, usually in a nuclear reactor, and U is also fissile.

Uranium is important for both nuclear reactors and nuclear weaponsbecause it is the only uranium isotope existing in nature on Earth in any significant amount that is fissile. This means that it can be split into two or three fragments fission products by thermal neutrons. Uranium is not fissile, but is a fertile isotope, because after neutron activation it can be converted to plutoniumanother fissile isotope. Indeed, the U nucleus can absorb one neutron to produce the radioactive isotope uranium Isotope separation concentrates enriches the fissionable uranium for nuclear weapons and most nuclear power plants, except for gas cooled reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors.

Most neutrons released by a fissioning atom of uranium must impact other uranium atoms to sustain the nuclear chain reaction. The concentration and amount of uranium needed to achieve this is called a ' critical mass '. To be considered 'depleted', the uranium isotope concentration should be no more than 0. The gas centrifuge process, where gaseous uranium hexafluoride UF 6 is separated by the difference in molecular weight between UF 6 and UF 6 using high-speed centrifugesis the cheapest and leading enrichment process.

In this process, uranium hexafluoride is repeatedly diffused through a silver - zinc membrane, and the different isotopes of uranium are separated by diffusion rate since uranium is heavier it diffuses slightly slower than uranium This leaves uranium bonded to fluorine and allows uranium metal to precipitate from the solution.

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A person can be exposed to uranium or its radioactive daughterssuch as radon by inhaling dust in air or by ingesting contaminated water and food. The amount of uranium in air is usually very small; however, people who work in factories that process phosphate fertilizerslive near government facilities that made or tested nuclear weapons, live or work near a modern battlefield where depleted uranium weapons have been used, or live or work near a coal -fired power plant, facilities that mine or process uranium ore, or enrich uranium for reactor fuel, may have increased exposure to uranium.

Most ingested uranium is excreted during digestion. Only 0. After entering the bloodstream, the absorbed uranium tends to bioaccumulate and stay for many years in bone tissue because of uranium's affinity for phosphates. Incorporated uranium becomes uranyl ions, which accumulate in bone, liver, kidney, and reproductive tissues.

Uranium can be decontaminated from steel surfaces and aquifers. Normal functioning of the kidneybrainliverheartand other systems can be affected by uranium exposure, because, besides being weakly radioactive, uranium is a toxic metal.

Alpha radiation from inhaled uranium has been demonstrated to cause lung cancer in exposed nuclear workers. Uranium metal is commonly handled with gloves as a sufficient precaution. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Uranium disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Natural nuclear fission reactor.

Main article: Uranium in the environment. Main article: Uranium mining. This section needs to be ated. Please ate this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September Main article: Uranium market. Triuranium octoxide left and uranium dioxide right are the two most common uranium oxides.

Main article: Isotopes of uranium. Main article: Enriched uranium. K residues List of countries by uranium production List of countries by uranium reserves List of uranium projects Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents Nuclear engineering Nuclear fuel cycle Nuclear physics Thorium fuel cycle Uranium bubble of Uranium nitride Uranium tile World Uranium Hearing.

Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements 3rd ed. Netherlands: Springer. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 April Archived from the original on 27 April CRC press. Royal Society of Chemistry. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed.

Columbia University Press.

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Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. The Gale Group, Inc. Applications of Texture Analysis. John Wiley and Sons. In Morss, Lester R. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. Archived from the original on 7 March Depleted Uranium in the Gulf II. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 12 September Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 20 September Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

Retrieved 10 October Chemische Annalen. Houghton Mifflin Company. Annales de chimie et de physique. Westinghouse Club. The Bureau - via Google Books.

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 14 June Nuovo Saggiatore. Bibcode : physics Retrieved 5 May Bibcode : Natur.

Retrieved 4 December Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 23 March Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 28 January BBC News. We have spent tens of thousands of dollars with our lawyer over the last three decades perfecting and revising these documents. They have prevented countless lawsuits and disputes with owners and have made us tons of money literally millions.

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